The Subjectivity of Nawāl Al-Sa’dāwī: Critique on Gender Relations in Religious Construction in Adab Am Qillah Adab Work

Yulia Nasrul Latifi,1* Wening Udasmoro,2 Juliasih J.3

   1 Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN), Indonesia
   2 Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
   3 Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
   * Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2019.572.257-286

Abstract


This writing examines three short stories in the short story anthology of Adab Am Qillah Adab by Nawāl Al-Sa’dāwī, namely: “Adab.Am Qillah Adab”, “al Umm al-Suwisriyyah al-Qātilah”, and “Qiṣṣah Fatḥiyyah al-Miṣriyyah”. The analysis focuses on Nawâl al-Sa’dâwî’s critique of religious constructions of gender relations. The subjectivity of Salvoj Žižek is the theory used and hermeneutics is the method of analysis. The purpose of the study is to find out the reasoning behind the radical acts of Al-Sa’dāwī over her rejection of patriarchal religious constructions in her three short stories. The result of the analysis shows that the literary work is the explanation of the radicalization of the author’s actions, Al-Sa’dāwī, as a subject. Such radicalization is her rejection of the needy Symbolic (patriarchal religion construction) as her attempt to escape the Symbolic. Al-Sa’dāwī continues to move because the subject is split and empty. Therefore, Al-Sa’dāwī makes an effort to seek full self-fulfillment to and approach The Real in order to kill the old tyrannical Symbolic and pick up the new Symbolic, which is the construction of a just religion and liberate women.
[Tulisan ini mengkaji tiga cerpen dalam antologi cerpen Adab Am Qillah Adab karya Nawâl al-Sa’dâwî, yaitu: “Adab..Am Qillah Adab”, “al-Umm al-Suwisriyyah al Qātilah”, dan “Qiṣṣah Fatḥiyyah al-Miṣriyyah”. Analisis difokuskan pada kritik Nawāl Al-Sa’dāwī terhadap konstruksi agama atas relasi gender. Subjektivitas Salvoj Žižek adalah teori yang dipakai dan hermeneutik merupakan metode analisisnya. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui alasan di balik tindakan radikal Al-Sa’dāwī atas penolakannya pada konstruksi agama yang patriarkis dalam tiga cerpennya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa karya sastra menjelaskan radikalisasi tindakan pengarang, Al-Sa’dāwī, sebagai sebuah subjek. Radikalisasi tersebut adalah penolakannya terhadap Yang Simbolik yang berkekurangan (konstruksi agama patriarkis) sebagai usahanya untuk melepaskan diri dari Yang Simbolik. Al-Sa’dāwī akan terus bergerak dikarenakan subjek itu terbelah dan juga kosong. Oleh sebab itu, Al-Sa’dāwī melakukan upaya untuk mencari pemenuhan dirinya secara terus-menerus dan mendekati The Real agar dapat membunuh The Symbolic lama yang tiranik dan menjemput The Symbolic baru, yaitu konstruksi agama yang adil dan membebaskan perempuan.]


Keywords


subjectivity; Nawāl Al-Sa’dāwī; religious construction; gender

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed, Leila, Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate, Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1992.

Al-Sa’dāwī, Nāwāl, Adab Am Qillah Adab, Cairo: Dar wa Matabi’ al-Mustaqbal, 1999.

----, al Wajhu al’Ary li al-Mar’ah al ‘Arabiyah, Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 2006.

----, The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World, ed. by Sherif Hetata, trans. by Sherif Hetata, London: Zed Books, 1980.

----, al-Wajh al-ʼārī lil-Mar’ah al-ʼArabīyah, Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 2006.

----, al-Unsha Hiya al-Asl, Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 2006.

----, Zinah, Beirut: Dār al-Sāqī, 2009.

Al-Sa‘dāwī, Nawāl and Jo Beall, “Nawal El Saadawi”, Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, no. 5, 1989, pp. 33–9 [https://doi.org/10.2307/4065647 ].

Al-Sa‘dāwī, Nawāl and Hibah Ra’ūf ʻIzzat, al-Marah wa-al-Din wa-al-Akhlaq, Damascus: Dār al-Fikr i-Dimashq, 2000.

Amireh, Amal, “Framing Nawal El Saadawi: Arab Feminism in a Transnational World”, Signs, vol. 26, no. 1, University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp. 215–49.

Audah, Ali, “Sastra Arab Mutakhir”, Jurnal Ulumul Qur’an, vol. 2, no. 7, 1996.

Badran, Margot, Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Carmody, Denise L., “Yahudi”, in Perempuan dalam Agama-Agama Dunia, ed. by Arvind Sharma, trans. by Ade Alimah, Yogyakarta: SUKA Press, 2006.

Dādīsī, Al-Kabīr al-, Azmat al-Jins fi al-Riwayah al-Arabiyah: bi-nun al-niswah, Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Riḥāb al-Ḥadītat, 2017.

Graham-Brown, Sarah, “Feminism in Egypt: A Conversation with Nawal Sadawi”, MERIP Reports, vol. 95, 1981, pp. 24–7.

Guèye, Khadidiatou, “Tyrannical Femininity” in Nawal El Saadawi’s Memoirs of a Woman Doctor’, Research in African Literatures, vol. 41, no. 2, Indiana University Press, 2010, pp. 160–72 [https://doi.org/10.2979/ral.2010.41.2.160 ].

Hafidz, Wardah, “Pengantar”, in Catatan dari Penjara Perempuan, Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 1997.

Hardiman, F. Budi, Seni Memahami Hermeneutik dari Schleiermacher sampai Derrida, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2015.

Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs from the Earliest Times to the Present, trans. by Cecep Lukman Yasin and Dedi Slamet Riyadi, Serambi Ilmu Semesta, 2006.

Malti-Douglas, Fedwa, Woman’s Body, Woman’s Word: Gender and Discourse in Arabo-Islamic Writing, Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1992.

Mansfield, Nick, Subjectivity: Theories of the Self from Freud to Haraway, Sydney: NYU Press, 2000.

Mc Kee, Elizabet, “Agenda Politik dan Strategi Tekstual Para Penulis Perempuan Afrika Utara”, in Feminisme dan Islam: Perspektif Hukum dan Sastra, ed. by Mai Yamani, trans. by Purwanto, Bandung: Nuansa, 2000.

Myers, Tony, Slavoj Žižek, London: Routledge, 2009.

Panikkar, Raimundo, Myth, Faith and Hermeneutics: Cross-Cutural Studies, New York; Ramsey; Toronto: Paulist Press, 1979.

Robet, Robertus, Manusia Politik: Subyek Radikal dan Politik Emansipasi di Era Kapitalisme Global menurut Slavoj Žižek, Tangerang: Marjin Kiri, 2010.

Royer, Diana, A Critical Study of the Works of Nawal El Saadawi, Egyptian Writer and Activist, Lewiston ; Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press, 2001.

Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Sexism and God-Talk: Toward a Feminist Theology, Boston: Beacon Press, 1983.

----, “Kristen”, in Perempuan dalam Agama-Agama Dunia, ed. by Arvind Sharma, trans. by Ade Alimah, Yogyakarta: SUKA Press, 2006.

Saiti, Ramzi, “Paradise, Heaven, and Other Oppressive Spaces: a Critical Examination of the Life and Works of Nawal El-Saadawi”, Journal of Arabic Literature, vol. 25, no. 2, Brill, 1994, pp. 152–74 [https://doi.org/10.1163/157006494X00059 ].

Sharma, Arvind (ed.), Perempuan dalam Agama-agama Dunia, Yogyakarta: SUKA Press, 2006.

Siswantoro, Metode Penelitian Sastra: Analisis Struktur Puisi, Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2010.

Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, “Can the Subaltern Speak?”, in Marxism and The Interpretation of Culture, ed. by Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, London: Macmillan, 1988.

Ṭāhā, Maḥmūd Muḥammad., The Second Message of Islam, Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1987.

Tamīmī, Amal, al-Sīrah al-Dhātīyah al-Nisāʼīyah fī al-Adab al-ʻArabī al-Muʻāṣir, al-Dār al-Bayḍā: al-Markaz al-Thaqāfī al-ʻArabī, 2005.

Wahid, Abdurrahman, “Wanita dalam Perspektif Agama-agama Suatu Pengantar”, in Wanita dalam Percakapan Antar Agama: Aktualisasinya dalam Pembangunan, ed. by M. Masyhur Amin and Masruchah, Yogyakarta: LKPSM NU DIY, 1992.

Wattimena, Reza A.A., Filsafat Politik untuk Indonesia: dari Pemikiran Plato, Edmund Husserl, Charles Taylor, sampai dengan Slavoj iek, Pustaka Mas, 2011.

Young, Katherine K., “Pengantar”, in Perempuan dalam Agama-Agama Dunia, ed. by Arvind Sharma, trans. by Ade Alimah, Yogyakarta: SUKA Press, 2006.

Zeidan, Joseph T., Arab Women Novelists: The Formative Years and Beyond, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995..

Žižek, Slavoj, The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Centre of Political Ontology, London: Verso, 2000.

----, The Sublime Object of Ideology, London: Verso Books, 2008.






Copyright (c) 2020 Yulia Nasrul Latifi, Wening Udasmoro, Juliasih J.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.