Three Sufi Communities Guarding the Earth: A Case Study of Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change in Indonesia

maghfur ahmad
* State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Pekalongan, Indonesia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2019.572.%25p

Abstract


Prasenjet Duara (2015) accuses divine religions as the cause of the environmental crisis and natural disasters. Duara's thesis was counterattacked by scientists and religionists who stated that religion has the spirit and teachings of careness for the environment. Nevertheless, the arguments they built are still theological, normative and theoretical. This study is an antithesis to the Duara’s statement and at the same time presents evidence based on the primary data that occurred in three Sufi communities. The focus of this study analyzes Sufi activism in Indonesia in safeguarding the earth, as a form of substantial religious responses to the environmental crisis due to climate change. Through the principles and mechanism of qualitative research methods, researchers sought to analyze mitigation and adaptation actions to climate change carried out by the Majlis Zikir Kraton Pekalongan, Jamaah Aoulia Panggang and Pesan Trend Ilmu Giri. The data are obtained through interviews, observation and documentation and they are analyzed interactively. The results of the study revealed that climate change is believed by the Sufis as God’s authority due to human destructive behavior. For Sufis, overcoming climate change must begin with a change in the perspective of human relations, nature and God. In the case of three Sufi communities, religion is not just a doctrine of the relationship between God and humans, but also operational guidance on how to synergize with nature. Through a substantial religious spirit, the Sufis guard the earth through the re-actualization of the narratives of takhalli, tahalli and tajalli, as ecological repentance, ecological movements, and ecological campaigns in mitigating and adapting to climate change.

[Prasenjet Duara (2015) menuduh agama-agama samawi sebagai penyebab terjadinya krisis lingkungan dan bencana alam. Tesis Duara mendapat serangan balik dari ilmuwan dan agamawan yang menyatakan bahwa agama memiliki spirit dan ajaran kepedulian terhadap lingkungan. Hanya saja argumen yang mereka bangun masih bersifat teologis, normatif dan teoritis. Kajian ini merupakan antitesa terhadap pernyataan Duara, dan sekaligus menyajikan bukti berdasarkan data-data lapangan  yang terjadi pada tiga komunitas sufi. Fokus kajian ini menganalisis aktivisme kaum sufi di Indonesia dalam menjaga bumi, sebagai bentuk respons kaum beragama subtansial terhadap krisis lingkungan akibat perubahan iklim.  Melalui prinsip dan mekanisme metode penelitian kualitatif, peneliti berusaha menganalisis tindakan mitigasi dan adaptasi terhadap perubahan iklim yang dilakukan oleh Majelis Zikir Kraton Pekalongan, Jamaah Aoulia Panggang dan Pesan Trend Ilmu Giri Yogyakarta. Data-data diperoleh melalui wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi dan dianalisis secara interaktif. Hasil kajian mengungkap bahwa perubahan iklim diyakini oleh kaum sufi sebagai otoritas Tuhan yang disebabkan perilaku destruktif manusia. Bagi kaum sufi, mengatasi perubahan iklim harus dimulai dari perubahan cara pandang relasi manusia, alam dan Tuhan. Dalam kasus di tiga komunitas sufi, agama tidak sekedar menjadi doktrin tentang relasi Tuhan dan manusia, melainkan juga petunjuk operasional bagaimana bersinergi dengan alam. Melalui spirit agama yang subtansial, kaum sufi menjaga bumi melalui reaktualisasi narasi takhalli, tahalli dan tajalli, sebagai pertaubatan ekologi, gerakan ekologi, serta kampanye ekologi dalam perilaku mitigasi dan adaptasi terhadap perubahan iklim.]

Keywords


climate change; sufism; mitigation; adaptation; environmental crisis and disaster

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad, Maghfur and et al, Laporan Kinerja Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, 2010-2015, Pekalongan: P3M IAIN Pekalongan, 2015.

Akanda, Aminul Islam, “Rethinking Crop Diversification Under Changing Climate, Hydrology and Food Habit in Bangladesh”, Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development, vol. 104, no. 1/2, 2010, pp. 3–23 [https://doi.org/10.12895/jaeid.20101/2.18 ].

Al-Ghazālī, Muhammad Abū Hamid, Ihya’ Ulum al-Din, Cairo: Mawwqi wa Zarah al-awqaf.

Alikodra, Hadi S., Konservasi Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan: Pendekatan Ecosophy Bagi Penyelamatan Bumi, Yogyakarta: UGM Press, 2012.

Aljunied, Khairudin, “Reorienting Sufism: Hamka and Islamic Mysticism in the Malay World”, Indonesia, vol. 101, 2016, pp. 67–84.

----, “Restoring Sufism in the Modern Age”, in Hamka and Islam: Cosmopolitan Reform in the Malay World, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2018.

Aziz, Akhmad Luthfi, “Kiai Shaleh Darat’s Moderate Sufism: Dialectic of Submission, Sincerity and World Affairs in Haża Al-Kitab Matnu Al-Ḥikam”, Jurnal Penelitian, vol. 16, no. 1, 2019, pp. 91–104 [https://doi.org/10.28918/jupe.v16i1.1836 ].

Babou, Cheikh Anta, “Globalizing African Islam from Below: West African Sufi Masters in the United States”, in Global Africa: Into the Twenty-First Century, ed. by Dorothy L. Hodgson and Judith A. Byfield, California: University of California Press, 2017, pp. 356–365.

Baer, Madeline, “Privatizing Water: Globalization, States, and Human Rights”, PhD. Dissertation, California: University of California, 2011.

Bagir, Zainal Abidin, “The Importance of Religion and Ecology in Indonesia”, Worldviews, vol. 19, no. 2, Brill, 2015, pp. 99–102.

Baidhawy, Zakiyuddin, “The Role of Faith-Based Organization in Coping with Disaster Management and Mitigation: Muhammadiyah’s Experience”, Journal of Indonesian Islam, vol. 9, no. 2, 2015, pp. 167-194–194 [https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2015.9.2.167-194 ].

Balaban, Olga V. et al., “Value Regulators of Co-Evolution Paradigm: Context of Environmental Ethics Rethinking”, Ekoloji, vol. 28, no. 107, 2019, pp. 365–72.

Batubara, Bosman, “Kejayaan Kapital”, Wacana: Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Transformatif, vol. 29, no. 1, 2013, pp. 137–52.

Bratton, Susan Power, “Eco-Dimensionality as a Religious Foundation for Sustainability”, Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 4, 2018, pp. 1–14 [https://doi.org/10.3390/su10041021 ].

Bruinessen, Martin van, Kitab Kuning, Pesantren dan Tarekat, Yogyakarta: Gading Publishing, 2015.

Buehler, Arthur F., “Review: Striving for Divine Union: Spiritual Exercises for Suhrawardi Sufis Qamar-ul Huda Striving for Divine Union: Spiritual Exercises for Suhrawardi Sufis”, Journal of Islamic Studies, vol. 15, no. 3, 2004, pp. 348–50 [https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/15.3.348 ].

“Deklarasi Multaqos Shufi”, Majalah Nahdlatul Ulama: Aula, vol. 8, 2011.

Duara, Prasenjit, The Crisis of Global Modernity: Asian Traditions And A Sustainable Future, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Echlin, Edward P., “Climate Change Theology”, New Blackfriars, vol. 89, no. 1024, 2008, pp. 715–29 [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-2005.2008.00238.x ].

Faishol, Abdullah, “Petani, Pesantren Perusahaan, Negara: Perebutan Sumberdaya Air dan Proses-Proses Pendidikan Rakyat di Sumberejo”, in Gamang: Lembaga Pendidikan Islam Menghadapi Perubahan Sosial, ed. by Ahmad Mahmudi, Toto Rahardjo, and Roem Topatimasang, Yogyakarta: Dikti Islam Depag RI Jakarta, Lembaga Pengembangan Teknologi Pedesaan (LPTP), & INSIST Press, 2007.

Gari, Lutfallah, “A History of the Himā Conservation System”, Environment and History, vol. 12, no. 2, 2006, pp. 213–28.

Gould, Laurence I., “Systematic and Logical Problems in Global Warming Science”, Energy & Environment, vol. 25, nos. 6–7, 2014, pp. 1205–18 [https://doi.org/10.1260/0958-305X.25.6-7.1205 ].

Gunn, Alastair S., “Rethinking Communities: Environmental Ethics in an Urbanized World”, Environmental Ethics, vol. 20, no. 4, 1998, pp. 341–60 [https://doi.org/10.5840/enviroethics19982043 ].

Hadad, Ismid, “Perubahan Iklim dan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Sebuah Pengantar”, Prisma, vol. 29, no. 2, 2010, pp. 3–22.

Haq, S. Nomanul, “Islam and Ecology: Toward Retrieval and Reconstruction”, Daedalus, vol. 130, no. 4, 2001, pp. 141–78.

Hermawan, Membangun Kampung Iklim: Pemanfaatan Lahan Dampak Rob untuk Pertanian dan Perikanan Organik di Pesona Panjang Wetan Pekalongan Barat, Pekalongan: P3M & NU Peduli Lingkungan, 2012.

Hertzberg, Martin, ‘Climate Change Reconsidered II — Physical Science’, Energy & Environment, vol. 26, no. 3, 2015, pp. 547–53 [https://doi.org/10.1260/0958-305X.26.3.547 ].

Hilman, Masnellyarti (ed.), Indonesia Second National Communication Under The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Climate Change Protection for Present and Future Generation, Jakarta: Ministry of Environment, Republic of Indonesia, 2010.

Howell, Julia Day, “Sufism on the Silver Screen: Indonesian Innovations in Islamic Televangelism”, Journal of Indonesian Islam, vol. 2, no. 2, 2008, pp. 225–39 [https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2008.2.2.225-239 ].

----, “Sufism and the Indonesian Islamic Revival”, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 60, no. 3, 2001, pp. 701–29 [https://doi.org/10.2307/2700107 ].

Huda, Qamar-ul, Striving for Divine Union, London; New York: Routledge, 2002.

Idso, Craig D., “S. Fred Singer and the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change”, Energy & Environment, vol. 25, nos. 6–7, 2014, pp. 1137–48 [https://doi.org/10.1260/0958-305X.25.6-7.1137 ].

Idso, Craig and S. Fred Singer, Climate Change Reconsidered: 2009 Report of the Nongovernmental Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), Chicago: The Heartland Institute, 2009.

Issar, Arie S. and Eilon Adar, “Progressive Development of Water Resources in the Middle East for Sustainable Water Supply in a Period of Climate Change”, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 368, no. 1931, Royal Society, 2010, pp. 5339–50 [https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0184 ].

Jhamtani, Hira, “Perubahan Iklim dan Industrialisasi Ilmu”, Wacana: Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Transformatif, vol. 27, no. 1, 2012, pp. 109–15.

Kais, Shaikh Mohammad and Md Saidul Islam, “Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 13, no. 12, 2016 [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121211 ].

Kanagy, Conrad L. and Fern K. Willits, “A ‘Greening’ of Religion? Some Evidence from a Pennsylvania Sample”, Social Science Quarterly, vol. 74, no. 3, 1993, pp. 674–83.

Keraf, A. Sonny, Krisis & Bencana Lingkungan Hidup Global, Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2010.

Küçük, Hülya, “A Brief History of Western Sufism”, Asian Journal of Social Science, vol. 36, no. 2, 2008, pp. 292–320 [https://doi.org/10.1163/156853108X298752 ].

Kusnanto, Hari, Adaptasi terhadap Perubahan Iklim, Yogyakarta: BPFE UGM, 2011.

Kutanegara, Pande Made (ed.), Membangun Masyarakat Indonesia Peduli Lingkungan, Yogyakarta: UGM Press, 2014.

Laila, Nur, “Ekosufisme Majelis Zikir Kraton Habib Muhamad Dardanylla Shahab Pekalongan”, Religia, vol. 21, no. 1, 2018, pp. 67–77 [https://doi.org/10.28918/religia.v21i1.1500 ].

Laporan Akhir Tahun 2015 – ICCTF, Jakarta: Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund, 2015.

Lawson, George, “The Crisis of Global Modernity: Asian Traditions and a Sustainable Future. By Prasenjit Duara”, Journal of Global History, vol. 13, no. 1, 2018, pp. 150–1 [https://doi.org/10.1017/S174002281700033X ].

M Nasruddin Anshoriy Ch and Sudarsono, Kearifan Lingkungan dalam Perspektif Budaya Jawa, Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2008.

Maryudi, Ahmad, “Lahan Gambut dan Perubahan Iklim: Distorsi Sains, Politik, dan Kebijakan”, Wacana: Jurnal Ilmu Sosial Transformatif, vol. 27, no. 1, 2012, pp. 2–11.

Maulana, Luthfi, “Theology of Humanity in the Sufism Community of the Sabbaqal Mufarridiyah Group in Pekalongan Indonesia”, Jurnal Penelitian, vol. 16, no. 1, 2019, pp. 25–36 [https://doi.org/10.28918/jupe.v16i1.1832 ].

Miles, Matthew B. and A. Michael Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 1994.

Miller, Henry, “Environmental Complexity and Financial Reports”, The Accounting Review, vol. 47, no. 1, American Accounting Association, 1972, pp. 31–7.

Moediarta, Rani and Peter Stalker, Sisi Lain Perubahan Iklim: Mengapa Indonesia Harus Beradaptasi Untuk Melindungi Rakyat Miskinnya, Jakarta: UNDP Indonesia, 2007.

Moncrief, Lewis W., “The Cultural Basis for Our Environmental Crisis”, Science, vol. 170, no. 3957, 1970, pp. 508–12 [https://doi.org/10.1126/science.170.3957.508 ].

Muscolino, Micah, “The Crisis of Global Modernity: Asian Traditions and a Sustainable Future. By Prasenjit Duara”, Environmental History, vol. 22, no. 2, 2017, pp. 374–6 [https://doi.org/10.1093/envhis/emx021 ].

Pachauri, Rajendra K., “Global Warning: The Impact of Meat Production and Consumption on Climate Change”, presented at the Peter Roberts Memorial Lecture, London, 8 Sep 2008.

Parr, Adrian, The Wrath of Capital: Neoliberalism and Climate Change Politics, New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Qodar, Lely, Manajemen Kepemimpinan Lingkungan: Kajian Eko Sufisme Pesantren, Yogyakarta: Penerbit Ilmu Giri, 2014.

Reychler, Luc and Arnim Langer, “Peace-Building Software: The Creation of an Integrative Climate”, Peace Research, vol. 35, no. 2, Canadian Mennonite University, 2003, pp. 53–73.

Rice, Gillian, “Pro-environmental Behavior in Egypt: Is there a Role for Islamic Environmental Ethics?”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 65, no. 4, 2006, pp. 373–90 [https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-0010-9 ].

Riyadi, Abdul Kadir, Arkeologi Tasawuf; Melacak Jejak Pemikiran Tasawuf dari Al Muhasibi hingga Tasawuf Nusantara, ed. by Ahmad Baiquni, Bandung: Mizan, 2016.

Rokib, Mohammad, “The Significant Role of Religious Group’s Response to Natural Disaster in Indonesia: the Case of Santri Tanggap Bencana (Santana)”, Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies, vol. 2, no. 1, 2012, pp. 53–77 [https://doi.org/10.18326/ijims.v2i1.53-77 ].

Salih, MA Mohamed (ed.), Climate Change and Sustainable Development: New Challenges for Poverty Reduction, Cheltenham & Massachusetts: Edward Elgar, 2009.

Schwencke, Anne Marieke, Globalized Eco-Islam–A Survey of Global Islamic Environmentalism, Leiden: Leiden Institute for Religious Studies (LIRS), Leiden University, 2012.

----, “Seyyed Hossein Nasr: Islamic Esotericism, Traditionalism and Environmental Ethics”, BA Thesis, Leiden: Leiden University, 2009.

Shepard, Paul and Daniel MacKinley (eds.), The Subversive Science: Essays toward an Ecology of Man, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969.

Smith, Gar, “Islam and the Environment”, Earth Island Journal, vol. 17, no. 2, 2002.

Stone, Susan, Mario Chacón León, and Patricia Fredericks, Perubahan Iklim & Peran Hutan: Manual Komunitas, Arlington: Conservation International, 2010.

Supian, “Eco-Philosophy sebagai Cetak Biru Filsafat Ramah Lingkungan”, Teosofi: Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam, vol. 4, no. 2, 2014, pp. 508–32 [https://doi.org/10.15642/teosofi.2014.4.2.508-532 ].

Suwito, “Eko-Sufisme: Studi tentang Usaha Pelestarian Lingkungan pada Jama’ah Mujahadah Ilmu Giri dan Jama’ah Aoliya’Jogjakarta”, PhD. Dissertation, Jakarta: Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, 2010.

Thohir, Umar Faruq, “Tasawuf Sebagai Solusi Bagi Problematika Kemodernan: Studi Pemikiran Tasawuf M. Amin Syukur”, Jurnal Theologia, vol. 24, no. 2, 2013, pp. 43–68 [https://doi.org/10.21580/teo.2013.24.2.327 ].

Thomas, Keith, Man and the Natural World: A History of the Modern Sensibility, New York: Pantheon Books, 1983.

Tol, Richard S.J., Kristie L. Ebi, and Gary W. Yohe, “Infectious Disease, Development, and Climate Change: A Scenario Analysis”, Environment and Development Economics, vol. 12, no. 5, 2007, pp. 687–706 [https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X07003841 ].

Toynbee, Arnold, “The Religious Background of the Present Environmental Crisis: A Viewpoint”, International Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 3, nos. 1–4, 1972, pp. 141–6 [https://doi.org/10.1080/00207237208709505 ].

----, Mankind and Mother Earth: A Narrative History of the World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Toynbee, Arnold and Daisaku Ikeda, Choose Life: A Dialogue, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Wain, Alexander, “Hamka and Islam: Cosmopolitan Reform in the Malay World by Khairudin Aljunied (review)”, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. 92, no. 1, 2019, pp. 129–32 [https://doi.org/10.1353/ras.2019.0013 ].

Wersal, Lisa, “Islam and Environmental Ethics: Tradition Responds to Contemporary Challenges”, Zygon®, vol. 30, no. 3, 1995, pp. 451–9 [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9744.1995.tb00083.x ].

White, Lynn, “The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis”, Science, vol. 155, no. 3767, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1967, pp. 1203–7 [https://doi.org/10.1126/science.155.3767.1203 ].

Widiyanto, Asfa, “Spirituality Amidst the Uproar of Modernity: the Ritual of Dhikr and its Meanings among Members of Naqshbandy Sufi Order in Western Europe”, Al-Jami’ah: Journal of Islamic Studies, vol. 44, no. 2, 2006, pp. 251–74 [https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2006.442.251-274 ].

Yazid, Yazlina M., “Faith-Based Environmentalism: A Case Study of Islamic-Based Environmental Organisations in the United Kingdom”, Master Thesis, The Hague: Institute of Social Studies, 2008.

Yuliana, Sri, “Perempuan Merawat Air, Tanah dan Keluarga: Kajian Kedaulatan Pangan di Air Sugihan, Ogan Komering Ilir, Sumatera Selatan”, Jurnal Perempuan, vol. 20, no. 3, 2015, pp. 61–71.

Zarcone, Thierry, “Qamar-ul Huda, Striving for Divine Union: Spiritual Exercises for Suhrawardī Sūfī”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 37, no. 1, 2005, pp. 117–8 [https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020743805260075 ].

Zuhri, Amat, “Mbah Munawar, Tasawuf dan Kelestarian Lingkungan”, Jurnal Penelitian, vol. 7, no. 2, 2010, pp. 1–10 [https://doi.org/10.28918/jupe.v7i2.110 ].






Copyright (c) 2019 maghfur ahmad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.