The Will and the Presence of Human Being in Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari’s Thought: Explaining the Relation between Human and God in Kalam Discourse

Mohammad Yunus Masrukhin
* Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN), Yogyakarta, Indonesia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2021.591.%25p

Abstract


This article tries to problematize the mainstream academic perspectives about fatalistic orientation and predetermined will of mankind attributed to the thoughts of Abu al-Hasan al-Asy’ari, founder of theological school in Islam named after his name. Benefited from phenomenological approach it proves that Ash’ari has conceptualized that mankind is free creature represented by his/her will as it is related to the will of God. This article argues that Ash’ari’s assertion that humankind has freedom is based on the fact that he/she has ability to feel the presence of the will in his/her consciousness as something belongs to him/her. Departing from the logic of Arabic linguistics, freedom is defined as free will found in human being regardless of whether it is created by mankind or by God. Knowing that human will is created by God theologically doesn’t mean that the will is predetermined in the state of consciousness due to the fact that al-Qur’an states that God has created a feeling of freedom for human being to feel free not to feel being determined. Since the conception of being is elucidated linguistically by Ash’ari as being found by finder, this projection has firmly been compatible with projection of phenomenological consciousness. This article ends with conclusion that the feeling of will in the sense of consciousness of it manifests human freedom without neglecting the will of God. This relation of two wills has enabled human being to be aware of his/her freedom and God’s one as unseparated dualism in human religious experience. 

[Artikel ini mencoba untuk melakukan problematisasi atas pandangan para sarjana mainsntream dalam diskursus teologi yang menyatakan bahwa pemikiran Abu al-Hasan al-Asy’ari, pendiri mazhab Asy’ariah, adalah fatalistik. Lebih lanjut, artikel ini ingin membuktikan bahwa pemikiran Asy’ari mempunyai perhatian yang besar terhadap kebebasan manusia yang direpresentasikan oleh adanya kehendak manusia yang berelasi dengan kehendak Tuhan dengan pendekatan fenomenologis. Artikel ini menjelaskan bahwa Asy’ari menegaskan kebebasan manusia dengan argumentasi bahwa ia mempunyai kehendak yang hadir dalam kesadarannya dan dinisbatkan kepadanya; orang yang berkehendak adalah orang yang mempunyai kehendak tanpa melihat siapa yang mewujudkan kehendak tersebut. Meskipun Tuhan menciptakan kehendak untuk manusia, tapi secara sadar kehendak itu dinisbatkan manusia. Pandangan Asy’ari tentang kehendak dan kebebasan manusia didasarkan pada logika Bahasa Arab dengan menyatakan bahwa eksistensi adalah wujud yang ditemu oleh manusia yang menemukan, mempunyai kesesuaian dengan fenomenologi yang menyatakan bahwa eksistensi adalah relasi kesadaran manusia terhadap wujud. Dalam konteks ini, kehendak merupakan bukti yang paling kuat atas eksistensi manusia yang bebas. Artikel ini berkesimpulan bahwa dalam pandangan Asy’ari manusia adalah makhluk yang bebas melalui kehendaknya tanpa harus mengkorbankan kehendak Tuhan. Lebih lanjut kehendak manusia dan Tuhan merupakan dualisme kesadaran eksistensialisme yang tak bisa dipisahkan dalam pengalaman kemanusiaan religius.]


Keywords


Ash’ari; theology; will; freedom; consciousness

Full Text:

PDF (Arabic)

References


Ajibah, Ahmad. "Asbāb Tahawwul al-Asy'ari 'an a;-Mu'tazilah", in al-Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Asy'ari Imam Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamā'ah, ed. by Ahmad Tayyeb, Kairo: Dar al-Quds, 2014.

al-Asy'ari, Abu al-Hasan, al-Ibānah 'an Ushūl al-Diyānah. ed. by Fauqiyyah Husain Mahmud. Cairo: Dar al-Anshar, 1977.

Al-Asy'arī, Abu al-Hasan, Maqālāt al-Islāmiyyīn, ed. by Helmut Ritter, Beirut: al-Ma'had li al-Abhas al-Syarqiyyah, 2005.

Al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur Abdul Qahir, al-Farq baina al-Firaq, ed. by Mohamad Ustman al-Khasyat, Cairo: Maktabah Ibn Sina.

Al-Jurjani, al-Syarif, Syarh al-Mawāqif, Istanbul: Mathba'ah al-Istanah, 1869.

Al-Madkour, Ibrahim (ed), al-Mu'jam al-Wasīth. Cairo: Maktabah al-Syuruq al-Dauliyyah.

Al-Subki, Taj al-Din, Thabaqāt al-Syafi'iyyah al-Kubrā. Kairo: Maktabah Isa al-Babi al-Halabi, 1995.

Al-Taftazani, Sa'duddin, Syarh al-Maqāshid. Pakistan: Mathba'ah al-Istanah, 1887.

Al-Nashar, Abdul al-Aziz Saif. "Wasathiyat al-Imām al-Asy'ari fī al-Insāniyyāt baina al-Jabr wa al-Tafwīdh." al-Imām Abū al-Hasan al-Asy'ari Imām Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamā'ah. Cairo: Dar al-Quds, 2014.

Al-Syahrastani, Abu al-Fath, Nihāyat al-Aqdām fī 'Ilm al-Kalām, ed. by Alfred Guilleum, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1934.

Al-Razi, Abu Bakar, Mukhtār al-Shihhāh, Beirut: Maktabah Lubnan, 1989.

Belo, Catarina, "Freedom and Determinism", in The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy, Richard C. Taylor & Luis Xavier Lopez-Farjeat Xavier (eds). London & New York: Routledge, 2016.

Faodah, Sa'id, Syarh al-'Aqidah al-Thahawiyyah, Beirut: Dar al-Dzakha`ir.

Fourak, Ibn, Mujarrad Maqālāt al-Imām Abī al-Hasan al-ASy'arī, ed. by Danial Gimaret, Beirut: Dar Masyriq, 1989.

Frank, Richard, "Moral Obligation in Classical Muslim Theology." The Journal of Religious Ethics, vol. 11, no. 2, 1983, pp. 204-223.

Frank, Richard, "Two Views of Human Agency", in Texts and Studies on the Development and History of Kalam, ed. by Richard Frank, London & New York: Routledge, 2008.

Gadamer, Hans-Georg, Philosophical Hermeneutics, California: University of California Press, 1976.

Heidegger, Martin, Introduction to Metaphysics, New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2014.

Jabbar, al-Qadhi Abdul, al-Mughī fī Abwāb al-Tauhīd wa al-'Adl, Cairo: Dar al-Mishriyyah li al-Ta'lif, 1980.

Husserl, Edmund, The Idea of Phenomenology, London: Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1999.

----, Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1931.

Makdisi, George. "Ash'arī and the Ash'arites in Islamic Religious History I." Studia Islamica, vol. 17, 1962, pp. 37-80.

---- "Ash'arī and the Ash'arites in Islamic Religious History II." Studia Islamica, vol. 18, 1963, pp. 19-39.

Mahmud, Fauqiyyah Husain, Muqaddimah li Kitab al-Ibānah 'an Ushūl al-Diyānah, Kairo: Dar al-Anshar, 1997.

Masrukhin, Mohammad Yunus, Menjadi Muslim Moderat: Teologi Asy'ariah di Era Kontemporer. Tangerang Selatan : Organisasi Ikatan Alumni Al-Azhar Indonesia (OIAAI), 2020.

Schmidtke, Sabin, The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Theology, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Syafi'i, Mohamed Hassan, al-Madkhal ilā 'Ilm al-Kalām, Kairo: Maktabah al-Wahbah, 1991.

Toosi, Javad Fakhkhar, "The Ash'ari Theological School and the Authority of Human Reason in Ethics." ICR Journal , vol. 11, no. 1, 2020. pp. 10-25.

Zain, Ibrahim Mohamed, "al-Minhaj al-Kalāmī 'inda al-Imām Abī al-Hasan al-Asy'ari wa Silatuhu bi al-Tahaddiyāt al-Falsafiyyah al-Mu'āshirah." International Journal of Islamic Thought, vol. 14, 2018, pp. 144-161.

Wolfson, Harry Austryn, The Philosophy of Kalam, Cambridge, Masschusetts, & London: Harvard University Press, 1976.






Copyright (c) 2021 Mohammad Yunus Masrukhin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.