Muhammadiyah’s Views and Actions on the Protection of Civilians during the Japanese Invasion of the Netherlands Indies, 1941-1942

Muhammad Yuanda Zara
* Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2022.601.91-130

Abstract


Studies on Muhammadiyah largely ignore Muhammadiyah’s perceptions of war. This study explores Muhammadiyah’s thoughts and practices on the protection of civilians in a so far neglected war, namely Japanese invasion of the Netherlands Indies in 1941-1942. Using historical research method, this study scrutinizes previously unexamined primary sources, the weekly magazine Adil, which was published by Surakarta branch of Muhammadiyah, in editions between 1941-1942. By examining edicts from the Central Board of Muhammadiyah as well as the writings of individuals affiliated with Muhammadiyah published by Adil, this study argues that Muhammadiyah was highly attentive to efforts to protect the civilians in times of war, by basing its thoughts on the interplay between Islamic principles and modern ideas about the rights of non-combatants in battle. Muhammadiyah strongly emphasized that during the war the civilians must be protected by the state. It moreover advised people to build spiritual and mental strength so that they can survive the war and advocated a self-protection of civilians by encouraging every resident of the Indies to help each other during the war. It campaigned for the protection of civilians with various methods and by establishing a special agency to organize the protection efforts. This study elucidates the role of Muhammadiyah in providing information, religious guidance and practical supports to its members and the Indonesian people in general regarding the protection of civilians in a war that finally overthrew European colonial powers in Southeast Asia.

Studi-studi tentang Muhammadiyah masih mengabaikan tema persepsi Muhammadiyah tentang perang. Kajian ini mengeksplor pandangan dan tindakan Muhammadiyah terkait perlindungan warga sipil di masa perang, dalam konteks yang selama ini terabaikan, yaitu invasi Jepang ke Hindia Belanda pada 1941-1942. Dengan menggunakan metode penelitian sejarah, studi ini mengkaji sumber-sumber primer yang belum pernah diteliti sebelumnya, yaitu majalah mingguan Adil yang diterbitkan oleh Muhammadiyah cabang Surakarta, di edisi antara tahun 1941-1942. Dengan menelaah maklumat-maklumat Pimpinan Pusat Muhammadiyah serta tulisan individu-individu yang berafiliasi dengan Muhammadiyah yang diterbitkan oleh Adil, penelitian ini berargumen bahwa Muhammadiyah menaruh perhatian besar pada upaya melindungi warga sipil di masa perang, dengan mendasarkan pemikirannya pada saling interaksi antara prinsip-prinsip Islam dan ide-ide modern tentang hak-hak non-kombatan dalam pertempuran. Muhammadiyah sangat menekankan bahwa selama perang warga sipil harus dilindungi oleh negara. Selain itu, Muhammadiyah mengajak masyarakat untuk membangun kekuatan spiritual dan mental sehingga mereka dapat bertahan dari perang dan menganjurkan agar warga sipil berupaya melindungi diri mereka sendiri dengan mendorong setiap penduduk Hindia untuk saling membantu selama perang. Muhammadiyah mengkampanyekan perlindungan warga sipil dengan berbagai metode dan dengan membentuk badan khusus untuk menyelenggarakan upaya perlindungan. Kajian ini menjelaskan peran Muhammadiyah dalam memberikan informasi, panduan keagamaan, dan dukungan praktis kepada anggotanya dan masyarakat Indonesia pada umumnya mengenai perlindungan warga sipil dalam perang yang akhirnya menggulingkan kekuatan kolonial Eropa di Asia Tenggara.]


Keywords


Muhammadiyah; protection of civilians; Japanese invasion; humanitarian law; Islamic law of war

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Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Yuanda Zara

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