Political Exegesis of the Holy Quran: A Rational and Critical vision

Zakir Aras,1* Sohirin Mohammad Solihin2

   1 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia
   2 International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Malaysia
   * Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2022.601.287-314

Abstract


This study deals with the exposition of political orientation in giving exegetical understanding of the Holy Qur’an with the use of rational and critical vision. It also attempts to analyse the books on sciences of the Quran to reveal the advantegous and disadvantageous for those who subcribe what so-called ‘the modern way of exegesis’. In addition, it presents the efforts of previous exegetical notion as well as the contribution of contemporary scholars in dealing with the issue of political exegesis by explaining their political direction. Moreover, it aims at giving scientific solutions and presenting rational responses with regard to the lacking aspects of the methodology within political exegesis of the book of Allah and to disclose the thing which comes closer to the truth. The study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach, where to discuss in the folds of the research and analytical based on exploring political interpretation and monitoring its pros and cons. There is no doubt that the Qur’an is the first source of Islamic legislation, and therefore it encompassed all social fields, and based on this basis, limiting the understanding and interpretation of the Qur’an to a specific thing or to a specific era or a method of curriculum is something that contradicts the Qur’an itself. Just as we welcome the various explanatory methods and their methods and colors, we must welcome the political interpretation of our days as long as it adopts the right approach and the good methods. However, it is not possible to deal with the entire Qur’an with a naive political perspective, and to interpret the Book of God according to political requirements and concepts, as it will lead to the emergence of political movements or military groups that give great interest in the political aspect of the Qur’an, so the Holy Qur’an enters into a political battle that the message of the Holy Qur’an does not aim at.

Artikel ini membahas orientasi politis dalam penulisan tafsir Qur’an dengan pendekatan yang lebih rasional dan kritis. Artikel ini juga menganalisis literatur kajian tentang Qur’an serta menunjukkan keuntungan dan kerugian dari istilah yang dikenal sebagai pendekatan modern dalam tafsir Qur’an. Selain itu juga menjelaskan kajian–kajian tafsir sebelumnya hingga kontribusi kajian sarjana tafsir saat ini yang terkait dengan pembahasan politisasi tafsir berserta kecenderungan politisnya. Disamping itu, artikel ini memberikan solusi dan respon rasional berdasar pada aspek kesenjangan metodologi politisasi tafsir dan usaha mengungkapkan pada kebenaran. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif dan analitik, dimana akan didasarkan pada eksplorasi berbagai penafsiran politis dan mengamati pendukung dan penentangnya. Tidak ada keraguan bahwa Qur’an adalah sumber hukum Islam yang pertama dan merangkum semua bidang, sehingga atas dasar ini membatasi pemahaman dan penafsiran Qur’an kepada sesuatu atau era tertentu atau kurikulum tertentu adalah sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan Qur’an itu sendiri. Seperti halnya kita menerima penjelasan tentang metode dan ragam yang sudah ada, maka kita juga harus menyambut baik ragam tafsir dan orientasinya saat ini selama menggunakan pendekatan yang tepat dan metode yang baik. Meski demikian, tidak mungkin berurusan dengan Qur’an yang perspektif tafsirannya naif dan mengikuti kecenderungan politik tertentu hingga memunculkan gerakan atau kelompok politik tertentu. Alih-alih justru membawa Qur’an dalam pertikaian politik dan jauh dari pesan-pesan Qur’an yang sebenarnya.


Keywords


Political interpretation, Holy Qur’an, methodology, Rational and Critical vision

Full Text:

PDF (Arabic)

References


‘Abd al-Qahir bin Ṭāhir bi Muḥamad bin ‘Abdullah al-Tamīmīy al-Asfarayīnī Al-Baghdādī, Al-Farqu baina al-Firaqi wa Bayāni al-Firqah al-Nājīh, 2nd edition, Beirūt: Dār al-Afāq al-Jadīd, 1977.

Abū ‘Abdullah Badar al-Dīn Muḥamad bin ‘Abdullah bin Bahādur Al-Zarkashī, Al-Burhān fi ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān, vol. 1, 1st edition, ed. by Muḥamad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm, Egypt: Dār Iḥya’ al-Kitab al-‘Arabīya ‘Īsa al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1957.

Abū ‘Abdullah Muḥamad bin ‘Umar bin al-Ḥasan bin al-Ḥusain al-Taimy al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-Ghaib/al-Tafsīr al-Kabīr, vol. 27, 3rd edition, Beirūt: Dār Iḥya’ al-Turāth al-‘Arabī, 1420H.

----, Mafātīḥ al-Ghaib/al-Tafsīr al-Kabīr, vol. 3, 3rd edition, Beirūt: Dār Iḥya’ al-Turāth al-‘Arabī, 1420H.

Abū al-A’lā Al-Maududī, Mujazu Tārīkh Tajdīd al-Dīn wa Iḥyā’ih Waqi’u al-Muslimīn wa Sabīl al-Nahūḍ Bihim, 2nd edition, Lebanon: Dār al-Fikr al-Ḥadīth, 1976.

Abū al-Ḥasan Ḥusnī, Al-Tafsīr al-Sīyāsī li al-Qur’ān: Dirāsah fi al-Mabādī` al-Ma’rifīyyah, 1st edition, trans. by Wāil ’Alī, Beirūt: Markaz al-Ḥaḍārah li Tanmīyya al-Fikr al-Islāmī, 2018.

Abū Ḥāmid Muḥamad bin Muḥamad Al-Ghazālī, Iḥyā’ Ulūm al-Dīn, vol. 1, Beirūt: Dār Al-Ma’rifah, D.T.

Abū Hilāl al-Ḥasan bin ‘Abdullah bin Sahal bin Sa’īd bin Yahya bin Mahrān Al-‘Askarī, Al-Furūq al-Lughawīyyah, ed. by Muḥamad Ibrāhīm Salīm, Cairo: Dār al-‘Ulum wa al-Thaqāfah, D.T.

Al-Baqīlīy al-Salimīy, Dalāl binti Koirān bin Hawīmal, “Al-Tajdīd fi al-Tafsīr fi al-‘Aṣri al-Ḥadīth Mafhūmuhu wa Ḍawābiṭuhu wa Attijāhātuhu”, Mecca: Universitiy of Umm al-Qura, 2014.

Al-Fārābī, Muḥamad bin Muḥamad bin Ṭarkhān, and Abū Naṣr, “Majmū’ fī al-Siyāsah”, in Risālah, 1st edition, ed. by Fu’ād ‘Ābd al-Mun’im Aḥmad, Alexandria: Mu’assasah Shabāb al-Jāmi’ah, N.D.

Al-Īmām Aḥmad bin ‘Abd al-Raḥim Al-Dahlawīy, Al-Fauz al-Kabīr fī Uṣūl al-Tafsīr, 2nd edition, trans. by Salmān al-Ḥusainī al-Nadwī, Cairo: Dār al-Ṣaḥwah, 1986.

al-Qāḍī ‘Abd al-Nabī bin ‘Abd al-Rasūli al-Aḥmad Nakrī, Dustūr al-‘Ulamā’: Jāmi’ al-‘Ulūm fi Iṣṭilāḥāt al Funūn, vol. 2, 1st edition, Beirūt: Dār al-kitab al-‘Alamiyyah, 2000.

Al-Suyūṭī, ‘Abd al-Raḥman Abī Dakar, and Jalāl al-Dīn, Al-Itqān fī Ulūm al-Qur’ān, vol. 4, ed. by Muḥamad Abū al-Faḍl Ibrāhīm, Egypt: al-Hai’ah al-Miṣrīyah al-‘Āmmah li al-Kitāb, 1974.

Al-Ṭobarī, Muḥamad bin Jarīr bin Kathīr Ghālab al-Āmalī, and Abū Ja’far, Jāmi’ al-Bayān fi Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, vol. 19, 1st edition, ed. by Ahmad Muḥamad Shākir, Beirūt: Mu’assasa al-Risālah, 2000.

----, Jāmi’ al-Bayān fi Ta’wīl al-Qur’ān, vol. 2, 1st edition, Beirūt: Mu’assasa al-Risālah, 2000.

Al-Wāḥidī, Al-Wajīz fi Tafsīr al-Kitāb al-‘Azīzi, vol. 1, 1st edition, ed. by Ṣafwān ‘Adnān Dāwūdī, Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 1415.

Ayūb bin Musā al-Ḥusainī al-Qarīmī, Abū al-Baqā’ al-Ḥanafī, and Al-Kufawī, Al-Kuliyāt: Mu’jam fi al-Muṣṭalaḥāt wa al-Furūqi al-Lughawīyyah, ed. by ‘Adnān Darwīsh- Muḥamad al-Muṣrī, Beirūt: Mu’assasah al-Risālah, D.T.

Fahd bin ‘Abd al-Raḥman bin Sulaimān al-Rūmī, Ittijāhāt al-Tafsīr fi al-Qarn al-Rābi’ ‘Ashar, Saudi Arabia: Ri’āsah Idārāt al-Buḥūth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa al-Iftā’ wa al-Da’wah wa al-Irshād, 1986.

Ibn ‘Āshūr and Muḥamad al-Ṭāhir bin Muḥamad bin Muḥammad Ṭāhir al-Tūnīsī, Al-Taḥrīr wa al-Tanwīr, vol. 1, Wanas: al-Dār al-Tūnisīyaa li al-Nashr, 1984.

Ibn Ḥanbal Abū Abdillah, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad, vol. 42, 1st edition, ed. by Sha’ ib al-Arna’uṭ and ‘Ādil Murshad, Beirūt: Mu’assasah al-Risālah, 2001.

Ibn Hishām and ‘Abd al-Malik bin Ayūb al-Ḥamīrī, Al-Sīrah al-Nabawīyyah, vol. 1, 2nd edition, ed. by Muṣṭafā al-Saqawi, Ibrāhīm al-‘Ibyārīy, and ‘Abd al Ḥafīṭ al-Shalbīy, Egypt: Maṭba’ah Muṣṭafā al-Bāb al-Ḥalabīy wa ‘Aulādih, 1955.

Ibn Sīna and al-Ḥusaīn bin ‘Abdullah, “Majmū’ fī al-Siyāsah”, in Risālah, 1st edition, ed. by Fu’ād ‘Abd al-Mun’am Aḥmad, Alexandria: Mu’assasah Shabāb al-Jāma’ah, N.D.

Ibrāhīm bin Mūsā bin Muḥamad al-Lakhmī Al-Shaṭibī, Al-Muwāfiqāt, vol. 5, 1st edition, ed. by Abū Ubaydah Mashhūr bin Husain al-Salmān, al-Mamlakah al-‘Arabīyya al-Su’ūdīyyah: Dār Ibn ‘Afān, 1997.

Khalid ‘Abd al-Raḥman Al-‘Ak, Uṣūl al-Tafsīr wa Qawā’iduah, 2nd edition, al-Urdān: Dār al-Nafā’is, 1986.

Maulānā Ubaydillah Al-Sanadī, Ilhām al-Raḥman fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, vol. 1, ed. by Abū Sa’īd Ghulam Muṣṭafaa al-Qāsimī al-Sanadī, Haidarabād: Bait al-Hikam, D.T.

Muḥamad ‘Abd al-‘Aḍīm Al-Zarqānī, Manāhil al-‘Arfān fi ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān, vol. 2, Egypt: Maṭba’ah ‘Isā al-Bāby al-Ḥalbī wa Shīrkāh, D.T.

Muḥamad ‘Alī Al-Sāyis, Tafsīr ‘Āyāt al-Aḥkām, ed. by Nājī Suwīdān, Cairo: al-Maktabah al-‘Aṣrīyya li al-Ṭabā’ah wa al-Nashr, 2002.

Muḥamad al-Sayyid Ḥusain Al-Dhahabī, Al-Tafsīr wa al-Mufassirūn, vol. 1, Cairo: Maktabah Wahbah, N.D.

Muḥamad bin Ismā’īl al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 1 Ḥadīth 128, 1st edition, ed. by Muḥamad Zuhaīr bin Nāṣir al-Naṣiri, Beirūt: Dār Ṭauqi al-Najāh, 2001.

Muḥamad Muḥamad ‘Abd al-Laṭīf Al-Khaṭīb, Auḍaḥ al-Tafāsīr, 6th edition, Egypt: al-Mutba’ah al-Miṣriyya, 1964.

Muḥamad Rashīd bin ‘Alī bin Muḥamad Bahā’ al-Dīn bin Munlā ‘Alī Khalīfah al-Qalamūnī Riḍā, Tafsīr al-Manār, vol. 1, Egypt: al-Hai’ah al-Miṣrīyya li al-Kitāb, 1990.

Nāṣir al-Dīn Al-Baiḍāwī, Anwāru al-Tanzīl wa Asrāru al-Ta’wīl, vol. 1, 1st edition, ed. by Muḥamad ‘Abd al-Raḥman Mar’ashlī, Beirūt: Dār iḥyā’ al-turāth al-‘Arabī, 1418.

Nūr al-Dīn Muḥamad ‘Itr, ‘Ulūm al-Qur’ān al-Karīm, 1st edition, Damascus: Maṭaba’ah al-Ṣabāḥ, 1993.

Sa’īd Ḥawā, Al-Asās fi al-Tafsīr, vol. 1, 6th edition, Cairo: Dār al-Salām, 1424.

Ṣolāḥ ‘Abd al-Fatāḥ Al-Khalid, Ta’rīf al-Dārisīn bi Manāhij al-Mufassirīn, 3rd edition, Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 2008.

Sulaimān Muḥamad Al-Ṭamāwī, Mabādi` ‘Ilm al-Idarāh al-‘Āmah, 3rd edition, Beirūt: Dār al-Fikr al-‘Arabī, 1965.

Waḥid al-Dīn Khān, Al-Tafsīr al-Siyāsī li al-Dīn, 1st edition, Cairo: Dār al-Risālah al-Rabānīyyah, 1991.






Copyright (c) 2022 Zakir Aras

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.