In-Hospital Death and the Change of the Grave Trajectory: The Cosmological Meanings of Sadness in Moroccan Context during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Hougua Ben Ahmed,1* Idrissi Khaoulani Fatima,2 Bichraden Hasna3

1 Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Morocco
2 Center for Studies and Research in Social Sciences, Rabat, Morocco
3 Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco
* Corresponding Author

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14421/ajis.2023.611.209-238

Abstract


This study examines the institutional changes and topographical landmarks within which the incident of death took place in the Moroccan context by focusing on the topic of in-hospital death during the COVID-19 pandemic. The complicated aspects surrounding the death arise from the process of medicalization, burial, and mourning among the relatives of the deceased. Methodologically, the research is based on a grounded phenomenological analysis of the experiences of relatives (50 participants) who lost their deaths in the first wave of the pandemic in four Moroccan cities: Rabat, Kenitra, Fez, and Missour. The study concludes that the negative attitude of Moroccans towards in-hospital death does not stem from the fragility of health services or the characteristics of loneliness and isolation, as revealed by Norbert Elias’s sociology. However, it closely links to the anthropological factors that construct the personal concept in the Moroccan context as a knot of relationships and looks at the body in its social, cultural and cosmological extensions.
[Penelitian ini mengkaji perubahan institusional dan landmark topografis tempat terjadinya kematian dalam konteks masyarakat Maroko dengan fokus kematian di rumah sakit selama pandemi COVID-19. Aspek rumit kematian muncul selama proses penanganan medis, penguburan, dan perkabungan di antara kerabat almarhum. Secara metodologis, penelitian ini didasarkan pada analisis fenomenologis terhadap pengalaman 50 orang dari keluarga orang yang meninggal pada gelombang pertama pandemi COVID-19 di empat kota di Maroko: Rabat, Kenitra, Fez, dan Missour. Tulisan ini menyimpulkan bahwa sikap negatif masyarakat Maroko terhadap kematian di rumah sakit tidak berasal dari buruknya layanan kesehatan atau pun dari dampak isolasi dan rasa kesepian yang khas, seperti yang diungkapkan sosiologi Norbert Elias. Namun, sikap negatif tersebut erat terkait dengan faktor antropologis yang mengkonstruksi konsep personal dalam konteks masyarakat Maroko yang menjadi simpul hubungan sosial dan pandangan terhadap jasad dalam konteks sosial, budaya, dan kosmologi.]


Keywords


in-hospital death; medical institution; Moroccon; COVID-19 pandemic.

Full Text:

PDF (Arabic)

References


Abel, Olivier, Préface à Ricœur, Paul, Vivant jusqu’à la mort suivi de Fragments, Paris: Édition du Seuil, 2007.

Akhmisse, M., “Histoire de la médecine au Maroc, des origines à l’avènement du Protectorat”, Histoire des sciences médicales, vol. 26, no. 4, 1992, http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/sfhm/hsm/HSMx1992x026x004/HSMx1992x026x004x0263.pdf.

Ariès, Philippe, Essais sur l’histoire de la mort en Occident du Moyen Âge à nos jours, Paris: Le seuil, 1975.

Bachelard, Gaston, La poétique de l’espace, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1961.

Baudrillard, Jean, L’échange symbolique et la mort, Paris: Gallimard, 1976.

Bauman, Zygmunt and Leonidas Donskis, Liquid Evil: Living with TINA, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2016.

Al-Bazzāz, Muḥamad al-Amīn, Tārīkh al-Majā’āt wa al-Awbiaa bi al- Maghrib fi al-Qarnayn al-Thāmin wa al-Tāsiʻ ‘Ashar, Al-Ribāth: Majallat Kulliyat al-Adāb, 1992.

Al-Biyād, Abd al-Hādi, Al-Kawārith al-Thabīʻiya wa Athāruhā fi al-Sulūk wa-Dhihniyat al-Insān fi al-Maghrib wa’l-Andalus, Beirut: Dar al-Thaliʻah, 2008.

Boujra, Hussayn, al-Ṭāʻūn wa Bida’ al-Ṭaʻūn, Beirut: Marqaz Dirāsāt al-Wahda al-’Arabiya, 2011.

Byrne, Joseph P., Daily Life during the Black Death, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006.

Clavandier, Gaëlle, Sociologie de la mort, Vivre et mourir dans la société contemporaine, Paris, Armand Colin, 2009.

Ciocan, Cristian, Heidegger et le problème de la mort: Existentialité, authenticité, temporalité, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2014.

Critchley, Simon, “Enigma variations: An interpretation of Heidegger’s Sein und Zeit”, Ratio, vol. 12, no. 15, 2002, pp. 154-175 [https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9329.00182].

Dols, Michael, ‘‘The Origins of the Islamic Hospital’’, Bulletin of the history of Medicine, vol. 61, no. 3, 1987, pp. 367-90, https://www.jstor.org/stable/44442098.

Elias, Norbert, Loneliness of the Dying, translated by Edmund Jephcott, New York and London: Continuum, 2001.

Foucault, Michel, L’histoire de la sexualité: La volonté du savoir, Paris: Galimard, 1976.

Foucault, Michel, , La naissance de la clinique, Paris: Quadrige, 2007.

Geertz, Clifford , The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books, 1973.

Gellner, Ernest, Les Saints de l’Atlas, trans. Paul Coatalen, Paris: Bouchêne, 2003.

Glaser, Barney & Anselm Strauss, Awareness of Dying, Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing, 1965.

Haqī, Muhamad, Al-Mawqif min al-Mawt fi al-Maghrib wa al-Andalus, Bni Mallāl:Matba’at Manbāl, 2007.

Harakāt, Ibrahīm, Madkhal ilā Tārīkh al-Maghribī al-ʻAskarī wa al-Ijtima’ī fi al-ʻAhd al-Marinī, Al-Ribāth: Majallat Kulliyat al-Adāb, 1977.

Hbida, Muhamad, Buas al-Tārīkh: Muraja’āt wa muqarabāt, Al-Ribāth: Dar al-Amān, 2015.

Hiroual, Abdellatif, Les hôpitaux de Marrakech, depuis le moyen âge jusqu’à l’ère contemporain, thèse pour l’obtention de Doctorat en médecine, université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, 2010.

‘Īsa, Ahmad, Tārīkh al-Bīmāristānāt fi al-Islam, Beirut: Dār al-Rāid al-‘Arabi, 1981.

Jacquardt, Danielle & Françoise Micheau, La médecine arabe et l’occident médiéval, Paris, 1996.

Lacapère, Georges, La syphilis arabe: Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, Paris: Gaston Doin, 1923.

Lebreton, David, Ūnthropulūjya al-Jassad wa al-Hadātha, trans. Shashilla Muhamad, Beirut: Al-Muassasa al-Aljāmi’iya li’al-Nashr wa Tawzi’, 1997.

Lund, P. Clement, ‘‘Deconstructing grief: A sociological analysis of prolonged grief disorder’’, Social Theory and Health, vol. 19, no. 6, 2021, pp. 186-200 [https://doi.org/10.1057/s41285-020-00135-z].

Al-Maḥmūdī, Aḥmad, ‘Ammat al-Maghrib al-Aqsā fi al-ʻAsr al-Muwahidī, Al-Ribāth: Manshūrāt ʻUkadh, 2001.

Al-Meskinī, Fathi, Naqd al-ʻAql al-Ta’wīlī aw Falsafat al-Ilāh al-Akhir, Beirout-Paris: Markaz al-Inmā al-Qawmi, 2005.

Morgan, Debra, “Analysing Complexity: Developing a Modified Phenomenological Hermeneutical Method of Data Analysis for Multiple Contexts”, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 24, no. 6, 2021, pp. 655-67 [https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2020.1847996].

Philifert, Pascale, “Rites et espaces funéraires à l’épreuve de la ville au Maroc”, les Annales de la Recherche Urbaine, no. 96, 2004, pp. 35-43, https://www.persee.fr/doc/aru_0180-930x_2004_num_96_1_2553.

Pitocco, Christine & Thomas Sexton, ‘‘Measuring Hospital Performance Using Mortality Rates: An Alternative to the RAMR’’, Int J Health Policy Manag, vol. 7, no. 4, 2018, pp. 308–316 [https://doi.org/ 10.15171/ijhpm.2017.94].

Raynaud, Lucien, Étude sur l’hygiène et la médecine au Maroc: Suivie d’une notice sur la climatologie des principales villes de l’Empire, Alger: Léon, 1902.

Ricœur, Paul, Soi même comme un autre, Paris: le Seuil, 1990.

Rozen, George, ‘‘The Hospital: Historical Sociology of a community institution’’. In Eliot Friedson (eds), The Hospital in Modern Society, New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1963, pp. 1-36.

Scott, James, ‘‘La montagne et la liberté : ou pourquoi les civilisations ne savent pas grimper’’, Critique Internationale, vol. 2, no. 11, 2001, pp. 85-104, http://www.jstor.org/stable/24563790.

Singelis, Theodore, ‘‘The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals’’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 20, no. 5, 1994, pp. 580– 591 [https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167294205014].

Stitu, Muhamad, Al-Faqr wa al-Fuqarā’ fi Maghrib al-Qarnayn al-Sādis wa al-Sābi’ ‘Ashar, Wajda: Muassasat al-Nakhla lil-Kitab, 2004.

Al-Syāhirī, Muzāhim ‘Illāwī, Al-Awda’ al-Iqtiṣādiya bi al-Maghrib ‘alā ‘Ahd al-Marinyīn, Baghdad: Dar al-Shuūn al-’Amma, 2001.

Thomas, Louis-Vincent, Anthropologie de la mort, Paris: Payot, 1975.

Trompette, Pascale, Le marché des défunts, Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 2008.

Walter, Tony, The Revival of Death, Londres-New York: Routledge, 1994.

Al-Wazzān, Muhamad ben al-Hussayn, Wasfu Ifrīqyā, Al-Ribāth: al-Syarika al-Maghribiya li al-Nasyr wa’l-tawzi’, 1980-1982.






Copyright (c) 2023 Hougua Ben Ahmed, Idrissi Khaoulani Fatima, Bichraden Hasna

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.